Incidence of Diabetes mellitus in India becomes double in past decade. The changing lifestyle, lack of exercise, bad dietary habits, stress, strain and anxiety are some common cause which increase the incidence of diabetes mellitus causes. Genetic factors play a major role in the development of diabetes mellitus. Multiple genes which are located on different part of different chromosomes are responsible for the development of Type 2 Diabetes mellitus. Many environmental factors interact with gene to produce this disorder. Type1 DM (IDDM) is more severe form of diabetes and seen below 30year of age incidence is highest among 10-14year of age. But Type2 DM (NIDDM) is most common type of diabetes.
Diabetes is an iceberg in society. Fasting hyperglycemia is necessary for the diagnosis of diabetes, but the disease can be recognized during less overt stages by presence of glucose intolerance. There is high level of plasma glucose, lipid profile and serum uric acid among the offspring of diabetic, probably due to some genetic predisposition. Glycemic control play a very important role in the management of type 2 diabetes (T2D), with postprandial glucose proposed as a better predictor of diabetes-related complications than fasting blood glucose or HbA1c. Therefore, studying postprandial glucose fluctuations has high physiological and clinical relevance. Aerobic exercise is prescribed clinically to prevent and treat T2DM because it improves glycemic control and insulin sensitivity in obese and hyperglycemic individuals.
Studies have shown that regular exercise training and good physical fitness are related to better pulmonary functions. How aerobic exercise improve patient’s quality of life, it can be understand by evaluating the relation between aerobic exercise and respiratory functions . Exercise is a type of physiologic stress in the body, and it places major demands on the cardiopulmonary system.
Exercise training is commonly accompanied by improvements in aerobic fitness and weight loss which independently influence glucose metabolism in a person. In healthy individuals, postprandial glucose tolerance has been shown to be increased, decreased or unchanged in the hours after a single bout of aerobic exercise. The immediate effect of a single bout of aerobic exercise on postprandial plasma glucose levels differ between healthy and diabetic subpopulations suggesting that it may be dependent on the subject’s underlying glycemic state.
The Physical activity and exercise in all diabetic patients help in glycemic control and overall health. Specific recommendations and precautions will vary by the age, sex, activity done, type of diabetes, and presence of diabetes-related health complications. In addition to engaging in regular physical activity, all adults should be encouraged to decrease the total amount of daily sedentary time and to break up sitting time with frequent bouts of activity. Finally, behavior-change strategies can be used to promote the adoption and maintenance of lifetime physical activity
The aerobic exercise effects , the Pulmonary function test and oral glucose tolerance test, in age and body mass index (BMI)‐matched groups offspring of nondiabetics and diabetics parents representing the normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Thus improving the pulmonary function of a person having impaired glucose tolerance by aerobic exercise , post prandial blood sugar level also may be controlled.